Saturday, May 23, 2020
Popular belief holds that consumption of drugs and alcohol encourages violence and that the appropriate response is prohibition of these goods. However, a different viewpoint is that prohibition creates illegal underground markets, which require violence and crime to remedy in-house disputes. This paper examines the relationship between prohibition and violence using the historical data and behavior following previous U.S. drug and alcohol laws, regulations, and enforcement on indicators of violence, e.g. homicide rates, and government enforcement expenditures. The results show that an increase in enforcement of drug and alcohol prohibition laws have been positively associated with increases in the homicide rate. Furthermore, supplementary evidence suggests this strong positive correlation prohibition enforcement on violence and the overall crime rate. I. Introduction Is Prohibition actually successful in reducing recreational drug consumption and drug-related violence? This is the question that will be analyzed in this paper. Drug enforcement officials frequently cite drug-related violence as a reason that drugs must be eliminated from our society. A contrary belief is that the system of drug prohibition actually causes most of the violence. Just like with alcohol prohibition in the 1920s and the rise of organized crime, drug prohibition inspires a dangerous underground market that manifests itself with violent crime throughout the U.S. and, in fact, theShow MoreRelatedThe Rise Of Drug Prohibition975 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDrug prohibition is rarely viewed negatively by many Americans. The failure of drug prohibition has sparked some debate in the last fifty years, however, the ignorance about illegal substances has led to little discussion on alternatives to prohibition. Legalizing all drugs would be a better alternative than perpetuating the fai led war on drugs. The drug war has negatively impacted many lives by demonizing users and corrupting public officials. Criminalizing alcohol did not work in the 1920s andRead MoreProhibition and the War on Drugs904 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof flux, but a constant in Americas policies is the Drug War. The government attempts to prevent the consumption of illicit and harmful substances, even shown in modern domestic policies. Yet with much effort, positive results was not usually yielded. Apart from the outcomes, prohibition has made a large impact on daily life. In the United States, prohibition of alcohol and opium was a visible and controversial debate. The prohibition of alcohol and criminalization of opium were very different butRead MoreThe Inintended Consequences of Alcohol Prohibition in The Unite States in the 1920s1680 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswere the unintended consequences of alcohol prohibition in the United States in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s? In this investigation, the focus will b e on the time frame 1920 to 1933, from when the 18th amendment was passed to when alcohol prohibition was repealed. The pros and cons of national prohibition of alcohol in the aspects of health, financial, and social results will be weighed. This will be done through the interpretation of statistics from before and after prohibition, insights of those who lived throughRead MoreCausal Essay904 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesProhibition of drugs and alcohol causes crime. Ostrowski a political analyst from the Cato institute, states that drug laws greatly increase the price of illegal drugs, often forcing users to steal to get the money to obtain them. Although difficult to estimate the black market prices of heroin and cocaine, these drugs appear to be many times greater than their pharmaceutical prices. For example, a hospital-dispensed dose of morphine (a drug from which heroin is relatively easily derived) costsRead MoreHistory of Drug Laws and Law Enforcement1637 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDrug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement Since the late 19th century, the federal and states governments of the United States have enacted laws and policies to deter the use and distribution of illegal drugs. These laws and policies have not only deemed what drugs are legal and illegal, but have also established penalties for the possession and distribution of these substances and established federal agencies to control drug use and administer drug law enforcement. This essay will not only examineRead MoreHistory, Social Factors and Economic Impac of the Prohibition of Alcohol in the United States1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshistory, social factors, and economic impact of the prohibition of alcohol in the United States. Ken Burns and Lynn Novick (2011) delve into the topic of alcohol in America in their documentary Prohibition, and this paper will discuss the events before, during, and after the prohibition of alcohol in the United States. This paper will also relate the prohibition of alcohol to the current drug policies o f cocaine in the United States. Alcohol and cocaine were both prohibited in the United StatesRead MoreTaking a Look at Prohibition937 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmaking and transportation of alcohol was banned. In 1919 the Volstead Act made all drinks containing more than 0.5 percent alcohol illegal once the 18th amendment went into use in 1920. Prohibition in America between 1920 and 1933 was made a law to reduce crime and corruption, solve social issues, and improve the health of Americans. The effects of prohibition on Americans depended on the reduced amount of alcohol being drunk. For a while consumption levels of alcohol decreased but then soon increasedRead MoreMarijuana Prohibition Is A Failure And A Waste Of Resources864 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAbraham Lincoln once said Prohibition goes beyond the bounds of reason in that it attempts to control a man s appetite by legislation, and makes a crime out of things that are not crimes.Ã¢â¬ The prohibition of marijuana has proven to be a failure and a waste of resources. In addition, prohibition has hurt society more than it has helped. Also, marijuana can be used as a medicine to treat many life threatening illnesses. The legalization of marijuana will generate enormous tax revenue, reduce crimeRead MoreSubstance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief History Essay example1651 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesas alcohol, illegal drugs, prescription drugs, over the counter drugs, cigarettes etc. Any and all of these can become addictiv e to people very quickly. For years, people believed that addiction was a willful vice that they do to themselves. For years is has been viewed as an individual problem instead of a social problem. Americans today have many different views than 100 years ago about addiction, alcohol and drugs. In the early days of the 19th century, it was only a dream that a drug couldRead MoreMarijuana Legalization Why is it the Best Choice for America?1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe most abused drug in America, has had a lot of publicity recently. Marijuana has caused multiple economic problems within the U.S. A controversial question has arisen from the increased popularity and troubles of this drug. The question is whether or not the U.S. government should legalize marijuana possession and sale in the country. Many Americans believe that the drug should be legalized for various reasons; others, however, are against the legalization of the dangerous drug. While legalization
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Introduction Public Administration is like any other administration, it is a process of translating the policies in the overall interests of the general public; which are then carried out into the results that can either benefit or hinder the general wellÃ¢â¬âbeing of society and the people living within this democratic monarchy. Although, in order to distinguish what is public from what is private and what is politics from what is administration, you have to know who is being affected and how they are being influenced. Issue for analysis Public Administration is the process within a governmental setup, which tends to hold a strong hold over the general populous of a community, as individuals; while Private Administration is a moreÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If the government refuses to sponsor health insurance programs; such as Medicare and Medicaid, under the PPACA, then public consumers; such as ourselves, will otherwise go without medical insurance and perhaps, without necessary medical care. The insurance companies will undoubtedly refuse to meet the requirements that were put into place under this act; thus declining to reimburse doctors with the Ã¢â¬Å"maximumÃ¢â¬ payout; or Minimum Essential Coverage (MEC), based on their own algorithms. With this act in place, the price of a medical commodity; such as a prescription, or service; such as vision and or dental care, continues to remain low and or competitive. Recommendation [or Recommendations] What is TrumpÃ¢â¬â¢s solution for ObamaCare, if this disastrous act Ã¢â¬Å"collapses under its own weightÃ¢â¬ ? If everything about this act truly fraudulent and broken, then maybe we should just throw it away and forget about it; or perhaps, or we can simply afford to Ã¢â¬Å"fix what s broken about itÃ¢â¬ . After carefully reviewing the pros and cons of ObamaCare, it was my decision that ObamaCare should not be repealed and replaced; but simply modified to fill any hairline fractures within the infrastructure. Most of the disadvantages of ObamaCare can easily be seen asShow MoreRelatedApplication Of An Software For Soft Ware Essay1286 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrequired for the development of soft-ware. A technical document will be prepared and sent for evaluation to the certified soft-ware professional to check the accuracy and feasibility of the software solution. The similar software will be procured through public procurement, and users will be tested on the platform, which are going to avail and offer the services. Then they will be inter-viewed again to know their viewpoints on the platform. The biggest challenge for us is to examine their satisfaction levelRead MoreCivil Liberties And Civil Rights1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1 McGahey 3 Megan McGahey Sherry Sharifian GOVT 2305 71430 20 September 2017 Civil Liberties vs. Civil Rights In the U.S. most use the terms Civil Liberties and Civil Rights interchangeably; although they both protect the freedom of citizens they do this in different ways. 2 Civil Liberties are limitations placed on the government. These are things the government is restricted to do, by the constitution. Things that could interfere with personal freedom. 3 For example, the 1st amendment says thatRead MoreObama Administrations Policy Views on Cybersecurity1338 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThreats Obama and Bush Administrations 1.3. Bush Administration 1.4. Policy Similarities 1.5. Policy Differences Recommendations for Improvements 1.6 Cyber Czar Position 1.7 International Organization and joint punishment Works Cited Introduction The following document will provide information pertaining to presidential administrations both past and present and their respective views on cybersecurity policies. Policies of each administration will be reviewedRead More The Evolution of Public Administration in American Society Essay1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPublic administration as a field of study and as a practice has continually evolved with American society. The United States has survived and thrived through major cultural shifts, varying degrees of economic climates, and both civil and world wars. Through out all these changes in our country, one thing has always remained the same, the fact that we are an ever evolving and always changing nation. Theories and forms of practice of public administration have also evolved parallel with the historyRead MoreFalcon Security Essay1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfederated and intercloud . Private Cloud Private cloud is the best choice for companies that already own datacenter and developed IT infrastructure and have specific needs around security or performance. The cloud is managed, owned, and operated by the organization, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises. Public Cloud Public cloud is the infrastructure for open use. It is hosted on the premises of the cloud provider. Public cloud is flexible, scalable andRead MoreIs College Expensive For College Debt?975 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesclaims that the public colleges provide an affordable education; moreover, there are a variety of funds available to help students pay for college. Regardless, college is still expensive because the college debt will become a lifetime debt for many graduates. Undoubtedly, college is expensive for students because many students cannot afford to pay their tuition from their wages and salaries. According to Matthew Reed, and Debbie Cochrane, Ã¢â¬Å"69% of graduates from public and private institutions accruedRead MoreProject Description Of A Business Case816 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestemplate. Therefore, it is little bit time consuming on the analysis of the business case. A business case template two from projectmanagement.com outlines how to carry out the public- private partnership project. The template provides the systematized approach for evaluating and exhibiting public- private partnership project. It exhibits the business needs in great details. However, financial parts relating to the business dealing, stakeholder and cost analysis is not clear. Third templateRead MoreCloud Computing And Its Uses1642 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesElasticity: Companies can scale up as computing needs increase and then scale down again as demands decrease. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pay per use: Computing resources are measured at a granular level, allowing users to pay only for the resources and workloads they use. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Private cloud and Hybrid cloud: Among the numerous motivations for utilizing cloud, there are two circumstances where associations are investigating approaches to evaluate a percentage of the applications they mean to convey into their surroundings usingRead MorePublic Cloud : Different Types Of Private And Private Clouds881 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPrivate Cloud 2 (REWRIET) Ã¢â¬Å"A private cloud implies utilizing a cloud framework (arrange) exclusively by one client/association. It is not imparted to others, yet it is remotely found. In the event that the cloud is remotely facilitated, the organization has a choice of picking an on-introduce private cloud also, which is more costly, however the organization has physical control over the informationÃ¢â¬ (CITEME). (REWRIET) Public Cloud 3(REWRIET) Ã¢â¬Å"The entire processing foundation is situated on theRead MoreComparative Public Administration1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat do you understand by Comparative Public Administration? Comparative Public Administration is an applied, intercultural, interdisciplinary, explanatory field of study which carries out cross-cultural investigations in order to provide solutions for management problems sooner and develop management technologies further. It is no accident that the field focuses upon growth, reform and capacity building since Comparative Public Administration is in many ways about identifying those best practices
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(49) " inherent to the overall design of the BS shops\." 1) Anita Roddick created the body shop in 1976 with the objective of opening an environmentally conscious cosmetic store. Today, the Body Shop (BS) has grown from being a single Ã¢â¬Å"hippieÃ¢â¬ store in England to a multinational company with over 2265 stores in 50 countries enjoying sales of ? 820,000 in 2006/2007 period. (mintel 2006) People say that Ã¢â¬Å"one person cannot make a differenceÃ¢â¬ but Anita Roddick proved it wrong by sticking to here ideals and ideas of doing business. We will write a custom essay sample on The Body Shop Marketing Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now This extract from the Body ShopÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement Ã¢â¬Ëto dedicate our business to the pursuit of social and environmental changeÃ¢â¬â¢ (www. thebodyshop. co. uk), shows us how she created a new way of dealing with customer needs and wants. She saw it as a better option to put customer and society in the first place and by doing so, gain sales for good conduct. This way of doing business was not only proved to be extremely successful but many marketers followed the BS concepts, attempting to maximise potential profit by imitating Dame Anita RoddickÃ¢â¬â¢s set of ideals or values. Throughout this essay, we will investigate how Anita Roddick successfully used marketing tools to promote her chain of shops and her strong principles and see how todayÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses can follow RoddickÃ¢â¬â¢s footsteps in successfully targeting the emergence of new consumer groups in the organic food market. Anita RoddickÃ¢â¬â¢s BS has not been an immense success for no reason. An explanation of the BS general success in world markets is that she was one of the pioneers in developing a more ethically based business. We will have a look at how she maximised the 4 PÃ¢â¬â¢s (product, place, promotion and price) to promote her chain of shops and strong principles. Product The BS sells and produces cosmetics and toiletries made from natural ingredients all over the world targeting principally women with a medium to high income and with deep social conscience and commitment. Its product range can be divided into eight categories each including a range of quality products. Each body lotion, shampoo, bath shower gel, etc. comes in different sizes in recycled, recyclable or biodegradable packaging. The Product Life Cycle of the BS is still in the growing stages as competition is still increasing due to an increase in interest in the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s potential. Furthermore, the market is continuously evolving as more and more people become more ethically aware. Branding is very important as it differentiates the company from other skincare companies. Anita Roddick managed to create a brand which positioned itself as promoting good environmental ethics at a time where Europe was becoming Ã¢â¬Å"greenerÃ¢â¬ , strongly differentiating itself from companies looking to increase profits at any legal cost to the environment and to society. But since the French cosmetic giant LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal bought the BS, BrandIndex measured a drastic drop in the ratings of BS reputation. Even though, the company promised to keep its ethical cosmetic brand intact, the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion on the BS did not take long to change. (http://www. brandrepublic. com) Price The Body Shop has been able to set premium prices because of the assumption that people would be willing to pay more for a product which they think is contributing to social and ethical issues. The fact that the BS is involved in issues such as fair trade, animal testing and has strong environmental views gave them the competitive advantage of product differentiation. But since competitors such as Boots or Bath Bodyworks in the states have started their own natural product range at prices below the BS, profits have decreased in comparison to previous years. From 2002 to 2003 sales grew by only 5% compared with competitors whose sales rose by 27% in the same period. It could also be said that the BS prices are in the mid market pricing range as there are products more expensive such as for example Boots natural-based products but much cheaper than Chanel or Estee Lauder beauty products. Furthermore, the cost of production of the BS products may be higher because of fair trade issues with local communities. But critiques say that the Ã¢â¬Å"Trade not AidÃ¢â¬ projects are simply a marketing tool and that not even 1% of the sales go to the projects. (www. mcspotlight. org) Promotion The BS way of advertising has mostly been done through indirect advertising. Indeed, by associating themselves to Greenpeace or the save the whales project or by doing fare trade with indigenous communities for example, journals, newspapers and magazines have written about the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products, campaigns and beliefs without the company actually carrying out or spending any money into promotion campaigns. The BS believes that beauty is reality and strongly disagrees on the advertising campaigns trying to glamorise their products Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËWeÃ¢â¬â¢re saying our products will moisturize, cleanse and polish; they will not perform miracles. (Mrs Galanti, 1997). This was stated in 1997 after the release of a rare mainstream campaign called Ã¢â¬Å"Love your bodyÃ¢â¬ due to increased competition in the marketplace. The Body Shop also makes extensive use of its web site, delivery lorries and shop windows to communicate its campaigns and beliefs. Packaging is also a way of promoting a product. By showing consumers that the BS is involved in recyclin g plastic bottles used in the packaging of a product for example, it positions itself furthermore in the customers mind as being an environmentally caring organisation. It also tried to push consumers to use refills but the impact of this campaign was minimal. Furthermore the BS also called for more people to recycle their old mobile phone. (Mintel, 2004) Place The BS looks closely at the store location, as customer accessibility to the store is very important. They are usually located on high streets, in department concessions depending on important factors of accessibility such as parking, visibility or even public transport. Stores are usually arranged as a boutique layout with products arranged according to their function. The atmosphere of the BS retail outlets is relaxed and sympathetic, inherent to the overall design of the BS shops. You read "The Body Shop Marketing Essay" in category "Best marketing essays" There is plenty of information on ingredients and the origin of the product available to the customer. Furthermore the BS rapid growth and international expansion was helped through franchising. Finally, the rise in demand for ethical products has provided many opportunities for marketers. Dame Anita Roddick, was one of the first to point that out and through product innovation and brand reputation, she managed to build a multinational company from virtually nothing. However, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s cosmetic market has highly evolved and is far more competitive than it used to be. The challenge for the company is to revitalise its retail outlets, improve their product offer and brand communications in order to grow store sales and invest in employee development and customer service. 2) Markets within an economy rapidly change offering opportunities for companies to increase profit and to expand. The marketerÃ¢â¬â¢s job is to react to these changes and put the company in the right direction. The organic food market for example has grown rapidly with consumers increasing spending on Ã¢â¬Å"ethicalÃ¢â¬ food by 800 million to approximately ? 5. 6 billion in 2006 (Ã¢â¬Å"Ethical consumerism report 2006Ã¢â¬ - Co-operative bank). Furthermore, most developed countries are seeing a rise in organic produce, Ã¢â¬ËThe organic market has boomed in recent years, growing by 25% annually on averageÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â (www. timesonline. co. uk). These figures show us that the organic movement is moving on a global scale with an increase in consumer interest in how and where food is produced. It could be said that the rise in the demand for organic products is due to the rising average age and due to media spotlight. Indeed, media are constantly focusing on the consequences of climate change and on how the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s resources are being depleted pushing fellow human beings to act more responsibly and ethically in what food products they buy. This has lead people to believe that by eating organic food, a person will stay healthy Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Ëstudies in 2006 and 2007 have found higher levels of Vitamin C in organic fruit and 68 per cent higher levels of omega-3 in organic whole milk than non-organic whole milk. (www. bbc. co. uk). On the other hand, with more elderly people in the UK after the baby boom of the early 50Ã¢â¬â¢s, the market is likely to see people buying organic/healthy food rather than GM food offering new opportunities to marketers in terms of how to advertise and promote their products. This could be done through promotional campaigns aimed at elde rly people, informing them of the availability of organic food in their respective supermarkets or by associating the organisation to environmentally friendly associations such as Greenpeace and beneficiate of indirect advertising. To be the first to come into a customers mind as being an organisation which cares about the environment would definitely give the company a strong competitive advantage. Two of the major leading supermarkets such as Tesco and Sainsbury have both recognised these changing consumer needs and have introduced organic food and organic policies within their stores Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËTo meet this growing demand SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s has re-launched its organic range as SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s SO organic and is committed to broadening the appeal of and extending its comprehensive range of organic foods. Ã¢â¬â¢ (www. jsainsburys. co. uk). Additionally, Sainsbury has recently Ã¢â¬Ëbanned the use of palm oil from unsustainable sources in its own-brand productsÃ¢â¬â¢ which has been argued by Greenpeace as a Ã¢â¬Å"positive first stepÃ¢â¬ towards the end of the destruction of the Indonesian rainforest (www. marketingweek. co. uk). Another way of promoting the organisation could be to introduce fair trade products in our supermarkets aisles. This would not necessarily be done in a profit objective scheme but instead to show customers the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in helping local communities even though profits could be made if an appropriate marketing strategy was applied. Another important factor to consider is packaging as it can be used for promotional purposes. This could give them an advantage over rival companies that may not sell organic food. Additionally, organisation could also concentrate on creating Ã¢â¬Å"greener friendlyÃ¢â¬ packaging Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËA UK company has launched a new range of convenience food packs manufactured from biodegradable plastic. Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â showing their awareness of the influence they have on the environment and their dedication to play a role in conserving the planet. (http://www. foodanddrinkeurope. com). The difficulty for the marketer will be to set attractive and adequate organic packaging at the lowest possible prices. This brings us to price considerations. Organic food is without a doubt more expensive to produce and sell than non-organic food giving the marketer the difficult challenge of setting a competitive price with rivals and at a level that still sees the company being profitable. It is also important that marketers are aware of how much people are willing to pay for organic food in order to maximise profits. Moreover, prices are set to increase as Ã¢â¬Ëexceptionally high market growth rates are causing demand to outpace supply. (http://www. organicmonitor. com) On the other hand, The Food Standard Agency and scientists still believe that organic food as a whole, is not necessarily healthier for a person than GM food Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Ëthere is no scientific evidence to suggest organic food is healthierÃ¢â¬â¢ (www. guardian. co. uk). Furthermore, Chefs such as Gordon Ra msay argue that organic food is overpriced and questions its authenticity Ã¢â¬ËThe problem with organic food is that it has become hip and trendy, overhyped, overpriced and inconsistent. Unfortunately there is now a snob factor attached to it. Ã¢â¬â¢ (www. timesonline. co. k) On this point, marketers will have to make sure that they undertake effective advertising campaigns as well as detailed branding and packaging to promote their products as being healthier than other foods in order to maintain high sales. The reason the organic market has grown so much in the last decade is definitely due to a rise in ethical consumerism. Indeed, after some companies were exposed by the media to how they really operated Ã¢â¬â i. e. illegal sweatshops for example- and the constant media coverage on the damage caused by humans to the earth, saw consumers take a more ethical approach to purchasing. This why it is so important to show consumers that the organisation is active in sustaining the earth and its resources. Today, the image of the company should be of first importance to marketers. Tesco and other supermarkets have already revised their strategy and offer for example to use plastic bags more than once- Ã¢â¬Å"Tesco claimed that shoppers had used one million bags less than they would normally expect. Ã¢â¬ (www. recycling-guide. org. uk). J SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s reacted by cutting back on carbon emissions produced by their outlets- Ã¢â¬Å"We are currently looking at the big picture regarding carbon emissions and the part SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s play in that. We have been extremely proactive over the last 10 years on all aspects of energy efficiency. Ã¢â¬ (Alison Austin, 2007). All these supermarket behaviour changes are done in the objective to remain competitive. Marketers understand that if their company is seen to be Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ then it is likely to be successful in the market. Finally, whichever strategy marketers do choose to adopt, it will eventually determine their level of success in an ever changing society which now focuses on being ethical and more aware of the environment. Bibliography Anon. , November 2007, Ã¢â¬Å"Food mattersÃ¢â¬ , BBC. Anon. , March,2006, Body Shop at a glance, FT. om, London, pg 1. Anon. , June 2003,Anita Roddick, Director, London, Vol. 56(11), pg. 60. Anon. , August 2007, Growth opportunity for organic market, Retail world, Vol. 60(16), pg. 22. Brassington F. and Pettitt S. , 2003, Principles of Marketing. 3rd ed. , Pearson Education Limited. Callan E. , May 2006, LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal says it is c ontent with Bady ShopÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics GENERAL REATILERS; 1st Ed. , Financial Times, London (UK), pg. 17. Coles A. , Harris L. , 2006, Ethical Consumers and e-Commerce: The Emergence and Growth of Fair Trade in the UK, Journal of Reasearch for Consumers, Crawley: (10), pg. , 6 pgs. Guthrie J. , September 2007, Activist who inspired a business generation; [LONDON 2ND EDITION], Financial Times, London (UK), pg 21. Marketing Week, September 2007, Ehtical consumerism: Lacking in green conviction, London: pg 28. Marketing Week, January 2007, Market research: Unlock the power of brands, London: pg 23 Jack L. , November 2007, Greenpeace backs SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s palm oil ban as a Ã¢â¬Ëfirst stepÃ¢â¬â¢, London, Marketing Week. Hofman M. , April 2001, Anita Roddick: The Body Shop International, established in 1976, Inc. Boston: Vol. 23, Iss. 5; pg. 61, 1pgs. Mintel, 2004, Body Shop campaigns for mobile recycling Mintel, 2006, Company report Mintel, April 2007, Impact of the Environment (The) Ã¢â¬â UK. The Body Shop International PLC. 2006. Annual report and Accounts. Sample I. , October 2007, Organic food is healthier: study, The Guardian Zink W. , February 1996, The impact of recycling on the cosmetic industry, Drug Cosmetic Industry, New York: Vol. 158 (2); pg. 42, 4pgs. Web sites Elliot S. , The Body ShopÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign offers reality, not miracles. [WWW] [Accessed 21 November 2007] The Body Shop. 2005. The Body Shop values report. [WWW] lt; URL: http://valuesreport. thebodyshop. net/pdfs/bodyshop_valuesreport_2005. pdf; [Accessed 22 November] Bidlake S. 2006. Body Shop reputation is battered by sale to LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal. [WWW] [Accessed 22 November] London Greenpeace, WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong with the Body Shop [WWW] [Accessed 18 November] Anon. , 2007, Product news. [WWW] ; URL: http://jsainsburys. co. uk/index. asp? PageID=419==200 5=583; [Accessed 23 November] Anon. , 2006, Tesco Ads Result in Re-Using Plastic Bags. [WWW] [Accessed 22 November] Organic Monitor, 2006, Global Organic Food Industry Facing Supply Challenges. WWW] [Accessed 25 November] Ungoed-Thomas J. , 2007, Eat your words, all who scoff at organic food. [WWW] [Accessed 22 November] Anon. 2007, Company news [WWW] [ Accessed 23 November] Horne M. , 2006, Ramsay lays into organic food snobs. [WWW] http://timesonline. co. uk/tol/newspapers/sunday_times/ireland/ article625714. ece [Accessed 25 November] ElAmin A. , 2006, Biodegradable food packaging launched in UK. [WWW] http://foodanddrinkeurope. com/news/ng. asp? n=69464-natureworks-rpc-bebo-biodegradable-pla [Accessed 22 November] Anon. , 2006, The Body Shop- Body and soul. [WWW] [Accessed 23 November] How to cite The Body Shop Marketing Essay, Essays
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Some paintings require us to stand back to see the design of the whole painting; standing close, we see the technique of the painting, say the brush strokes, but not the whole. Other paintings require us to stand close to see the whole; their design and any figures become less clear as we move back from the painting. Similarly, fiction, drama, and poetry involve the reader emotionally to different degrees. Emotional distance, or the lack of it, can be seen with children watching a TV program or a movie; it becomes real for them. Writers like Faulkner, the Bronte sisters, or Faulkner pull the reader into their work; the reader identifies closely with the characters and is fully involved with the happenings. Hemingway, on the other hand, maintains a greater distance from the reader. Affective Fallacy Ã¢â¬â The error of evaluating a poem by its effectsÃ¢â¬âespecially its emotional effectsÃ¢â¬âupon the reader. We will write a custom essay sample on Critial Vocab or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As a result the poem itself, as an object of specifically critical judgement, tends to disappear. Alacrity Ã¢â¬â Liveliness or briskness. Alalia Ã¢â¬â Complete inability to speak; mutism. Allegory A narrative where characters, actions and sometimes setting are consistently symbolic of something else (often philosophical or moral abstractions). Alliteration the use, especially in poetry, of the same sound or sounds, especially consonants, at the beginning of several words that are close together Ambiguity Ambiguity is the quality of having more than one meaning; doesÃ Ameliorate Ã¢â¬â To make or become better; improve. Amelioration. Amorphous Ã¢â¬â Lacking a definite shape; formless. 2 Ã¢â¬â Of no recognisable character or shape. Anachronisms Ã¢â¬â Flash backs, jumps forwards. Analogy a comparison between things which have similar features, often used to help explain a principle or idea Analepis Ã¢â¬â A flash-back Anathema Ã¢â¬â A detested person or thing Ã¢â¬Ëhe is anathema to me! Ã¢â¬â¢ 2 A formal ecclesiastical curse of excommunication. Antonym An antonym is a word opposite in meaning to another word but similar to it in most other respects. For example, tall and short are opposite in meaning but both are the same parts of speech (adjectives) and would take the same position in a sentence. Aporia Ã¢â¬â An impassable moment or point in a narrative, a hole or opening that produces a hermeneutic analysis. Arbitrarily Ã¢â¬â Founded on or subject to personal whims, prejudices, etc. ; capricious. 2 Ã¢â¬â Having only relative application. 3 Ã¢â¬â Of a government or ruler despotic or dictatorial. Arcane Ã¢â¬â Requiring secret knowledge to be understood; mysterious; esoteric. Arrhythmic / Arrhythmia Ã¢â¬â Any variation from the normal rhythm of the heart beat. Arriere-pensee Ã¢â¬â An unrevealed thought or intention. Arriviste Ã¢â¬â A person who is unscrupulously ambitious. Assiduous Ã¢â¬â Hard-working; persevering. Assignation Ã¢â¬â A secret or forbidden arrangement to meet esp. between lovers. Attest Ã¢â¬â To affirm the correctness or truth of. Auric Ã¢â¬â Of or containing gold in the trivalent state. Autodidact One who is self-taught. Avarice Ã¢â¬â The getting and keeping of money, possessions etc as a purpose to live for. B Ballad Ã relatively short narrative poem, written to be sung, with a simple and dramatic action. The ballads tell of love, death, the supernatural, or a combination of these. Two characteristics of the ballad are incremental repetition and the ballad stanza. Incremental repetition repeats one or more lines with small but significant variations that advance the action. The ballad stanza is four lines; commonly, the first and third lines contain four feet or accents, the second and fourth lines contain three feet. Ballads often open abruptly, present brief descriptions, and use concise dialogue. Baroque Ã¢â¬â A term applied by art-historians (at first derogatorily, but now merely descriptively) to a style of architecture, sculpture, and painting that developed in Italy at the beginning of the seventeenth century and then spread to Germany and other European countries. The style employs the classical forms of the renaissance, but breaks them up and intermingles them to achieve elaborate, grandiose, energetic, and highly dramatic effects. In Literature, it may signify magniloquent style in verse or prose. Beatitude Ã¢â¬â Supreme blessedness or happiness. Benefactor Ã¢â¬â A person who supports or helps a person (Beneficiary), institution etc. , esp. by giving money; patron. Bilious Ã¢â¬â Bad tempered. 2. Hideously green. Blank verse Blank verse is a form based on unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter. The verse parts of Shakespeares plays are blank verse (with exceptions, such as the witches recipe), as is Miltons Paradise Lost. The form is one that is close to normal speech (indeed, the form is one thats close to normal speech is itself an iambic pentameter) so it gives a subtle pulse to a poem, rather than an obvious shaping as a limerick might. However, there is a tendency in contemporary poetry to use shorter lines, so the form can also sound stately or slow to a modern ear.? Bowyer Ã¢â¬â Person or makes or sells archery bows. Bumptious Ã¢â¬â Offensively self-assertive or conceited. C Cadence Ã¢â¬â (Poetry) A fall, in tone, in pitch etc. Catalectic Ã¢â¬â (Poetry) of a line, missing one or more beats. Catechism Ã¢â¬â Instruction by a series of questions and answers esp a book containing such instruction on the religious doctrine of the Christian church. 2 Rigorous and persistent questioning, as in a test or interview. Character Characters may be classified as round (three-dimensional, fully developed) or as flat (having only a few traits or only enough traits to fulfil their function in the work); as developing (dynamic) characters or as static characters. Caesura a strong pause within a line, and is often found alongside enjambment. If all the pauses in the sense of the poem were to occur at the line breaks, this could become dull; moving the pauses so they occur within the line creates a musical interest. Chivalric Romance Ã¢â¬â Developed in 12th Century France, spread and displaced epic and heroic forms. Climax The height of tensions or suspense in a storys plot where conflict comes to a peak. Coetaneous Ã¢â¬â Of the same age or period. Coeval Ã¢â¬â Of belonging to the same age or generation. 2) A contemporary. Collocate Ã¢â¬â To group or place together in some system or order. Collusion Ã¢â¬â Secret agreement for a fraudulent purpose; connivance; conspiracy. Conceit The Metaphysical poets of the seventeenth century enjoyed creating particularly audacious metaphors and similes to compare very unlike things, and drawing attention to how skilfully they could sustain this comparison; this became known as the conceit. The classic example is probably Donnes The Flea, in which a flea-bite is compared to a marriage, and like most conceits, the extended comparison is more notable for its invention than its believability. Concomitant Ã¢â¬â Existing or occurring together; associative. Concord Ã¢â¬â Agreement or harmony between people or nations; amity. Confabulate Ã¢â¬â To talk together, to communicate. Confiteor Ã¢â¬â A prayer consisting of a general confession of sinfulness and an entreaty for forgiveness. Conflagration Ã¢â¬â A large destructive fire. Conflagration Ã¢â¬â A large destructive fire. Conflate / Conflation Ã¢â¬â To combine or blend, esp two versions of a text, so as to form a whole. Conflict The part of the plot that establishes an opposition that becomes a point of interest. Can ve an opposition between characters, between character and environment, between elements in a characters personality etc. Conglomerate Ã¢â¬â A thing composed heterogeneous elements. Conjecture Ã¢â¬â The formation of conclusions from incomplete evidence; a guess. Consonance Consonance is the effect of similar speech-sounds being near each other. Some forms of consonance can be singled out, which are: alliteration, where initial sounds matter; sibilance, where s and z sounds are enhanced; and assonance, where the vowel-sounds of words are in concert. Contiguous Ã¢â¬â Touching along the side or boundary; in contact. Convivial Ã¢â¬â Sociable, jovial or festive. Corpulent Ã¢â¬â Physically bulky; fat. Coterie Ã¢â¬â A small exclusive group of friends with common interests; clique. Coterminous Ã¢â¬â Enclosed within a common boundary. Coterminous Ã¢â¬â Having a common boundary. Couplet A couplet is a stanza (or even a poem) consisting of two lines. These need not rhyme, nor be the same length, but can be. If there is no enjambment at the end of the second line, it can be called a closed couplet (the opposite being an open couplet), especially if this is a recurring pattern.
Wednesday, March 25, 2020
?Analysis Of Sector Matrix For Ford Motor Company Marketing Essay Three tools are largely popular and relevant for analysing as well as prescribing remedies pertaining to the improvement of organisational performance. These are the Value Chain Ã¢â¬â propounded by Michael Porter, the Global Commodities Chain (GCC) Framework Ã¢â¬â put forward by Gary Gereffi and Miguel Korzeniewicz, and the Sector Matrix Theory Ã¢â¬â conceptualised by Julie Froud. This essay will aim at critically examining whether the sector matrix framework, gives a better strategic understanding of product markets than the concepts of product or commodity chains. Literature review and discussions will be centred on the Ford Motor Company which is, apart from being one of the Detroit Three (Sperling Gordon, 2009, P. 55), also a significant player in the global automotive industry. The essay will also try to discuss the significance of the said tools at firm level as well as sectoral level by taking into consideration the changes in organisational activities at the firm level and their impacts on the intermediate as well as the macro levels. We will write a custom essay sample on Generic Strategies or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Propounded by Michael E. Porter (1985), the Value Chain model is centred on organisational processes. Generally the manufacturing facility is categorised into subsystems Ã¢â¬â each having its own inputs, throughputs and outputs. The efficiency of activities aligned through value chain determines the cost of production and hence influences the profitability of the organisation. The activities are grouped into primary activities and secondary/support activities (Needle, 2010, P. 275). Figure 1: Porters Value Chain The five main primary activities are inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and after-sales service, while the secondary activities comprise procurement, human resource management, technological development and infrastructure. It has been observed that Ford Motor Company (Ford) being a foremost player in the global automobile industry, its business activities have extensive influence on almost all aspects of its environment. Figure 2: Value Chain of Ford (Source: Ford-website-a, n. d. ) The figure appended above represents the interconnectivity of the main phases of FordÃ¢â¬â¢s value chain. The management of Ford has recognised the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"these issues are interconnected at each stage and that positive and negative effects in one part of the chain can reverberate in the other partsÃ¢â¬ (Ford-website-a, n. d. ), and hence, is trying to infuse the different phases with sustainability issues. Ford is aiming at improving its manufacturing efficiency and simultaneously reducing emissions. Moreover the company is also using recycled materials and is trying to enhance the reusability of its vehicles as part of its environment-friendly operations. The automobile behemoth is augmenting its activities related to corporate social responsibilities (CSR) in order to improve its relationships all through its value chain. Keeping in mind the fact that all business operations boil down to profitability, the company is trying to enhance its capacity so that it may respond spontaneously to the challenges as well as opportunities meet the changing trends of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements and fulfil the expectations of its stakeholders. According to Gary Gereffi (1999) Ã¢â¬Å"a commodity chain refers to the whole range of activities involved in the design, production, and marketing of a productÃ¢â¬ (Gereffi, 1999, P. 1). Commodity chains can generally be classified into two groups, viz. producer-driven and buyer-driven. In producer-driven chains large, multinational manufacturers play pivotal roles in the coordination of complex production networks. Such commodity chains can be observed in capital as well as technology intensive industries. The automobile industry, on account of compliance with both these parameters, serves as a typical example of producer-driven chain that is characterised by multifaceted production systems and the involvement of numerous firms. As Gereffi (1994) had previously opined, the three major dimensions of Global Commodity Chains are a well defined input-output structure, territoriality and corporate governance (Pietrobelli Sverrisson, 2004, P. 18). The input-output structure comprises a group of products as well as services that are interlinked through a sequence of activities and add to the value of the organisation. The organisations need well defined spatial dispersion networks pertaining to production as well as marketing and should employ various enterprises for this purpose. Territoriality plays an important role in determining the volumes of sales that an organisation may achieve through its marketing and sales activities. Finally, the corporate governance activities that are adopted by the company shape the authority as well as distribution of power within the organisational hierarchy and in turn Ã¢â¬Å"determine how financial, material, and human resources are allocated and flow within a chainÃ¢â¬ (Pietrobelli Sverrisson, 2004, P. 18). The automobile industry is highly fragmented and consists of numerous suppliers. The segment pertaining to auto parts is divided between OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) and replacement market. OEMs are firms that manufacture components that are used by automakers in order to assemble new vehicles. Players in replacement markets manufacture components in order to substitute items incorporated in original assemblies. Distributors and suppliers of both OEMs as well as replacement components may be autonomous organisations or auxiliary business units of larger organisations. Producer-driven chains are directed largely by brand owners, and the same phenomenon is exhibited by Ford as well, as it owns Volvo (Pietrobelli Sverrisson, 2004, P. 19). Firms are generally seen as linear supply chains, whereas industries are conceptualised as groups of firms that often share common technological platforms in order to produce similar outputs. This basic premise forms the foundation of PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Value Chain. It has been observed that Ã¢â¬Å"within the value chain firms are constantly struggling to enhance cost recovery and reduce costs of manufactureÃ¢â¬ (Haslam, Neale Johal, 2000, P. 87). In order to achieve these objectives companies often try to expand their markets and search for cheaper sources of labour. In the course of such activities it has been experienced that Ã¢â¬Å"analysis is constrained within a linear supply chain and industry-centred view of the world of business and so strategic choices are also limited by the value chain model constructed by PorterÃ¢â¬ (Haslam, Neale Johal, 2000, P. 87). Figure 3: Sector Matrix for Motor Industry (Source: Haslam, Neale Johal, 2000, P. 102) As can be understood from the figure above, the primary objective of such a matrix form is to comprehend the interactions between demand and supply and their role in shaping business policies. This type of analysis gives rise to Ã¢â¬Å"a matrix of horizontal and vertical relationsÃ¢â¬ (Haslam, Neale Johal, 2000, P. 103). Ford being an automobile behemoth, exhibits the Chandlerian model of industrial administration dominates the entire value chain (Bromberg, 2004, P. 5). Like its peers, Ford is highly diversified as well as vertically integrated, and hence it consumes a significant portion of overall value chain. Owing to this fact the internal dynamics of the company play a major role in shaping the value chain as well as commodity chain and sector matrix. For companies of FordÃ¢â¬â¢s stature that manufacture standardised products aimed at mass markets, production is obviously considered to be the core competency and manifestation of economies of scale serves as a basic competitive factor. As can be observed from the figure, the sets of activities, viz. durable as well as services are necessary to strike a balance between the demand and supply that are existent in the market. While the Value Chain model emphasises on the excellence of production and the Global Commodity Chain stresses mainly upon creating an effective marketing network, the Sector Matrix incorporates the fundamental tenets of both these frameworks and conceptualises an integrative model that is centred on demand substitution and a complementary supply interaction that is strategised through organisational activities that are analogous to the primary activities of PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Value Chain. It is a more focussed as well as balanced framework that helps in efficiently scanning the business environment and align primary organisational activities with the aim to achieve growth as well profitability. As has been observed through the course of this essay, the primary aim of this research was to critically examine whether the Sector Matrix framework, gives a better strategic understanding of product markets than the concepts of product or commodity chains. Substantial efforts were put in to discuss the relative significance of this tool in analysing the strategic understanding of product markets at the firm level as well as the sectoral level. It has been seen that the basic objective of the Sector Matrix framework is to analyse the complex interactions between demand and supply prevalent in the market and the roles that they play in shaping business policies. It was found that this type of analysis gives rise to a template of horizontal as well as vertical relations between demand substitution and subsequent supply interaction. From the literature review undertaken to analyse Sector Matrix with respect to the automobile industry in general and the Ford Motor Company as the type organisation, it was found that for a capital as well as technology intensive industry like automobiles the concept of linear supply chain is highly prominent and hence the companies in this industry require continual alignment of organisational processes to meet the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements through high volumes of production and simultaneously achieve profitability through economies of scale. Unlike PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Value Chain and Global Commodity Chain, Sector Matrix has been found to be a more efficient tool for evaluating the business environment and aligning the overall business operations in order to reduce the costs of production and meet demands optimally. Generic Strategies free essay sample Strategies Tony Bennett Ashford University BUS620 Managerial Marketing July 9, 2012 Abstract This paper will summarize the generic marketing activities of a retail establishment with the purposes of assessing their market and segmentation strategies. After the assessment a strategy will be developed to improve the marketing of the product. The example used for the analysis will be a company located in the Philippines called CDR King. CDR King provides the latest technologies in computer related products and accessories at affordable prices by bypassing middlemen, bringing the product direct to the customer which greatly reduces cost. Generic Strategies CDR King is a retail chain located exclusively in the Philippines who initially sold media products but has now increased their product line becoming a full blown technology provider. CDR King is now selling the latest computer related products and accessories with over 100 branches across the Philippines. According to (cdrking. com) the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s vision Ã¢â¬Å"is to provide every Filipino with the latest technology at an affordable priceÃ¢â¬ and the mission is Ã¢â¬Å"to be the No. We will write a custom essay sample on Generic Strategies or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 1 top media technology provider in the Philippines that could provide the latest technology at an affordable price without extra cost and also to be able to deliver up-to-date technologies to the Philippine market with the latest computer related products as well as computer accessories. CDR King Marketing Strategy CDR KingÃ¢â¬â¢s generic marketing strategy places an emphasis on low cost and affordable products. The cost leadership strategy involves a company winning market share by focusing on cost-conscious or price-sensitive customers. This is accomplished by having the lowest prices in the target market, or the lowest price to value ratio (Muller and Walker 2010). For this approach to be successful the company must have lower operating cost than its competitors. CDR King accomplishes this by: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Not selling ther branded products Ã¢â¬ ¢ They do not participate in heavy advertising Ã¢â¬ ¢ Warranties are kept short so they are not factored into the price CDR King operates very similar to a franchise model. All of its products are sold with a CDR King logo, all employees wear uniforms and every CDR King store has the same color scheme. The model of the company is molded after McDonalds except they sell cdÃ¢â¬â¢s and technology gadgets and not hamburgers. CDR King collects all payment s manually and manage inventory in the same manner. The strategy is to penetrate the technology market through customers they consider the regular Joe. The current target market of CDR king is the C and D market across the Philippines, this market would be the equivalent to the middle to lower class in the United States. After much success in the technology gadget market the company has decided to expand on its business model by venturing into the vending machine market, selling items like blank disks, optical mouse, Bluetooth dongles, card readers, memory cards and usb drives. The company currently has one located in Quezon City at its Technohub and plans to roll out more in the next several weeks (gmanetwork. com). CDR King Weaknesses No matter how successful a company is theyÃ¢â¬â¢re prone to make mistakes and have weakness; CDR King is no exception. The retail stores are big, stocked full with inexpensive products which can make navigating through inventory a challenge sometimes. When you combine that with the manual processing of purchases, it creates long lines at the checkout counter. Upon entering the CDR king store you are given a number and sometimes the wait to see a salesperson can be extremely long. I have no idea of what the hiring requirements are for store employees but customers often complain about the interaction with the salespeople; they are perceived as rude and impersonal. The other big complaint about the company is the quality of the actual products. The products are manufactured in China and have a very short life span normally lasting just long enough to make the week long warranty expiration date. I would have to agree with this assessment of the product because of my own personal experience with the company. In the past IÃ¢â¬â¢ve purchased at least 5 notebook chargers each lasting about 1 month at a time. Each cord cost around 600 pesos which is equivalent to 12 U. S. dollars. The last time I needed a cord I did not purchase it from CDR King but from one of its competitors. The cord is clearly made with a much better quality and I have not had any problems with it at all. Improved Strategy As the saying goes Ã¢â¬Å"if itÃ¢â¬â¢s not broke then donÃ¢â¬â¢t fix itÃ¢â¬ . The CDR King cost approach has been a very effective strategy for the company and leads in the market place on low price; I would recommend keeping that strategy the same. I would suggest the company focus their efforts in a few different places. 1. Eliminate the manual ordering process Ã¢â¬â by converting the manual order taking process into a computerized system the company could greatly decrease the amount of time it spends with each customer, improve and speed up the inventory process, and generate reports on inventory gaining insight into which products sell the most or the least and which products have the most defects. This would allow them to make much needed adjustments to defective products costing the company the most money. The company could also use the system to obtain demographics, geographies, and psychographics to greatly improve the cost associated with marketing activities. 2. Improve customer service Ã¢â¬â re-train the employees with the overall goal of becoming more personal and sincere. The HR department should be the first step in the new superior quality service campaign, encouraging them to only hire individuals with a strong track record in customer service. . Discontinue the vending machine business Ã¢â¬â if the company already has problems with a combination of customer service, cheap products and warranties the vending machine business would only increase the dissatisfaction among customers. Attempting this line of business is going to make the existing problems with the company much worse. Conclusion In conclusion, the CDR King has started a great business but like all entities the need to evolve is always a part of the life process. The company now has the lead on a niche market, selling low priced computer related parts and accessories to a specific class of people located in the Philippines. However competition will eventually arise, a company can always figure out how to do something bigger and better. In order for the company to move into the right direction and to the next level, the changes I suggested should be implemented as soon as possible. The more the company delays, the more it increases its chances of losing the dominance they currently hold in the marketplace. References Mullins, J. W. , Walker, Jr. O. C. (2010). Marketing management: A strategic decision making approach (7thÃ Ed. ). Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin http://www. cdrking. com/? mod=faqs http://www. gmanetwork. com/news/story/264015/scitech/technology/cdrking-vending-machines-anyone
Friday, March 6, 2020
Experiement to test for anions and cations Essay Example Experiement to test for anions and cations Paper Experiement to test for anions and cations Paper The aim of the experiment is to test an unknown substance with a variety of experimental methods, by doing this the identity of the substance will be known. The two types of different testing methods will be anions and cations. Cations are positively charged ions; this is because the atom looses an electron during a reaction, therefore having fewer electrons than protons. Anions are negatively charged ions, as the atom gains an electron during a reaction, therefore having more electrons than protons. An ion is an atom or molecule that either has gained or lost either one or more electrons, resulting in a positive or negative charge. The concept of atoms loosing or gaining electrons is known as ionic bonding. Meaning that when an atom of a single element offers electrons to atoms of another element a bond is formed. By observing any chemical changes in the experiment (for example, colour change, precipitate formation or expelling of gas), it should be easy to identify the unknown substance. A chemical change is when a new substance is produced for example the burning of magnesium metal in oxygen to produce magnesium oxide. It is an irreversible reaction, meaning that it is impossible to reverse the reaction back to how it originally was. Hypothesis It is to be expected that it will be possible to identify each unknown cation and anion by various testing methods. Safety assessment Goggles Should be worn to prevent any spillages coming into contact with the eyes Lab coat Should be worn to prevent any spillages on clothes. Glass ware Correct procedures to be followed for cleaning up, if any breakages occur. Liquids Acids being used in experiment, ALL are corrosive and SOME give off pungent fumes. Correct procedures must be followed if any spillages occur. All liquids, when finished should be diluted and disposed off down the sink, unless told otherwise. Gloves should be worn, with both gloves and hands being thoroughly washed when finished with the experiment. Fume cupboard Should be switched on to provide ventilation for any toxic/pungent fumes. Method Testing for cations (Substance I) A small spatula of substance I was added to a test tube, along with distilled water filling half of the test tube. 2. Using a Bunsen burner the test tube was placed into a blue flame to help it dissolve, and was then allowed to cool. 3. A clean test tube was taken and 1/3 of the solution was added to it, along with 5 drops of dilute sodium hydroxide. 4. No precipitate was formed, so the test tube was placed back into the Bunsen flame, with a piece of moist litmus paper placed over the top of the tube (ensuring that it didnt touch) 5. The paper turned from red to blue, indicating that substance I was ammonium. Testing for cations (Substance J) 1. A small spatula of substance I was added to a test tube, along with distilled water filling half of the test tube. 2. Using a Bunsen burner the test tube was placed into a blue flame to help it dissolve, and was then allowed to cool. 3. A clean test tube was taken and 1/3 of the solution was added to it, along with 5 drops of dilute sodium hydroxide. 4. No precipitate was formed, so the test tube was placed back into the Bunsen flame, with a piece of moist litmus paper placed over the top of the tube (ensuring that it didnt touch) 5. The paper had no change and remained red. 6. A flame test was then done using nichrome wire and a small sample of the solid. 7. The flame turned a yellow/orange colour and was identified as sodium. Testing for anions (Substance J) 1. A small spatula of substance J was added to a test tube, along with 2 dropfulls of dilute hydrochloric acid. 2. Using a Bunsen burner the test tube was placed into a blue flame and warmed gently. 3. No gas was given off, so three drops of barium chloride was added to the test tube. A white precipitate had formed, indicating that it was a sulphate. Testing for anions (Substance I) 1. A small spatula of substance I was added to a test tube, along with 2 dropfulls of dilute hydrochloric acid. 2. Using a Bunsen burner the test tube was placed into a blue flame and warmed gently. 3. No gas was given off, so three drops of barium chloride was added to the test tube. 4. No white precipitate had formed, and the solution was discarded with lots of water down the sink. 5. A fresh solution of substance I was made, with a small amount of water. An equal amount of dilute nitric acid was then added to the test tube, along with 3 drops of silver nitrate solution. 7. No precipitate was formed and the solution was again discarded with lots of water down the sink. 8. A fresh solution of substance I was made, with a small amount of water. 9. Using gloves, a few crystals of iron (II) sulphate were added to the test tube and concentrated sulphuric was added slowly and in drops down the side of the test tube, in a fume cupboard. 10. A brown ring had formed between the two liquids and the substance was identified as a nitrate.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
(What is happening with tobacco companies, that electronic cigarettes are becoming popular, Why is it rising)(Tobacco developing countries)(Electronic Cigarettes phenomenon - servicing a need) - Research Paper Example who have developed new varieties of cigarettes and have captured a huge market share across the globe. But over the last few years the increasing awareness of health care among people and also the governmental policies that are against smoking conventional cigarettes has grown up at a huge rate. This has affected the tobacco companies in a huge way in their sales and also in their financials. Because of this there is a continuous decline in their sales. The companies thus are looking for other options to start for not allowing their business from declining and also for the revamp. Companies like Lorillard and Philip Morris International are; looking to launch the new concept of electronic cigarettes in the market to capture the market share again and to attract more customers. Electronic cigarette is the new product that is been launched in the market for people who are looking to quit smoking but are not able to quit and also taking the health factor of the people in mind. The electronic cigarettes are not filled with tobacco instead they have a liquid containing nicotine which is b een diluted in glycerin or propylene glycol and water. The level of nicotine does vary based on the cartridges and they also have certain flavors added to them. In this research it can be seen how the market for the tobacco companies is going down with the increasing demand of electronic cigarette in the market using secondary research and understanding the impact of electronic cigarette over the tobacco industry in the global market. What is happening with tobacco companies, that electronic cigarettes are becoming popular, why is it rising and affecting in the Tobacco developing countries? What is the phenomenon behind the electronic cigarette and the need for service in this category? This research over the reasons for the decline in the demand for tobacco and also with the